Test description

Jany manufactures seats and floor systems for category M1 vehicles.

M1 vehicles are defined as being equipped with a maximum 8 seats excluding the driver.  The M1 category applies mainly to relatively small passenger vehicles and is therefore is the most stringent safety requirements for vehicle seats of any vehicle.

To obtain M1 approval of a vehicle, the entire vehicle as a whole should meet a series of EU directives and testing requirements. To achieve approval of the seat in a vehicle, the seat must not only be tested as an individual unit, but also as a complete full system installed in the vehicle which you intend to fit the seats into.

All Jany seat solutions are tested in accordance with applicable EU directives, which are validated by TÜV Rheinland who witness and prepare approval reports for installation in vehicles.

Of these, four directives dealing with car seats, as specified below:

ECE R 14: Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to anchoring the seat belts.

ECE R 16: Uniform provisions concerning the approval of safety belts and child restraint for people in motor vehicles. 

ECE R 17: Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles in regard to seat anchorages and head restraints.

ECE R 21: Uniform regulation for the approval of vehicles in regard to the interior fittings.


The following is a brief description of the most essential tests which need to be performed in each directive:

In all directives, there is a criterion for the seat geometry for optimum safety which is based on a benchmark called the “H-point”. This is the hip flexion point for an average person and is determined by a test doll, which is placed in the seat and physically measured up. The directives have rules as to how the test should be performed in relation to the H-point, which will be elaborated below.

ECE R14     

In order to ensure proper operation of the belt system, the anchoring points has to be able to keep the defined tensile stress, which has the same efficiency as if replicated in an accident. The upper shoulder belt and lower pelvic belt on a 3-point belt is secured with a traction device. A traction machine loads the seat with 1350 kg on each belt section, while the seat is exposed to a static load of 20 x weight of the seat in the lower anchorage points. The Jany seat systems is loaded with a total of approx. 3.5 ton, and must be able to keep the load 0.2 sec. without breaking, to be approved. 
                                                  Belt Anchorage 3 point


For the belt, which is the occupant’s safety device in an accident, there is a greater test requirement. The functionality of a belt, the tension for the speed, angle, and the acceleration, is tested by cycle tests. In addition to a dynamic and static tensile test, the conditioning of all elements is tested against temperature variations, water and resistance to dust. Jany works with experienced harness manufacturers for the commercial vehicle industry. Along with the supplier Jany develops harness solutions for all of our products to achieve the best security for the user.
                                          ECE R16 Dynamic Test


During this test, mainly seatback and the headrest is tested.

• The seat is fixed in a test rig which replicates the shape of a person; the device is then forced into the seat back with a force of 53 Nm.
                                                   ECE R17 Load Test

• The same test is repeated with a dummy head, so that the neck support and the back are loaded at the same time.
                                                           ECE R17 HeadRestraint Moment Test

• One of the main tests is a dynamic sled test. The seat must be tested front- and rear-facing and must withstand a force of 20G. Sled test have now been extended to include two loose blocks impacting the rear of the seats to simulate for example loose luggage or boxes hitting the seat during a crash.
                                        ECE R17 Dynamic Test

• The headrest unit is tested in a worst case scenario where the head restraint's ability to absorb energy upon impact is weakest. This is achieved with a measuring instrument that has a dummy head hitting the headrest, respectively from the front and back with a force which corresponds to a torque of 37.5 Nm.
                                                           ECE R17 Head Restraint Impact Test


There are also requirements for the interior cabin design and materials used. This is to ensure, that within the impact zone there are no elements which could constitute a risk to the user. In relation to the seat back, there is a requirement for the material used and its ability to absorb energy, its quality and design, are measured and it must have a minimum roundness. All tests are carried out with a measuring device where a dummy head comes into contact with all the elements that are defined in the impact zone.
                                                               ECE R21 Test of the minimum radius

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